Toxiproxy client and server
When it comes to network programming so much of the process is temperamental. What I mean by this is the way algorithms perform ultimately ends up being decided by changing network conditions. If we are to write good network code there is a need to be able to write algorithms that can handle many common and unexpected scenarios. But how should one do this?
One cannot simply test their code on the Internet or loopback and hope for the best. This does not lead to a reliable or systematic approach. What is needed is a way to model adverse network conditions. So that we may test how our algorithms deal with unexpected events. One such design that seems ideally suited for this is Toxiproxy by Shopify.
Toxiproxy consists of a main REST server that spawns sub-servers or tunnels that are used as relays to different target machines. You can modify behaviors in these relays - allowing you to test everything from latency to packet recombination algorithms.
Toxiproxy refers to the start of the relay (you) as the downstream while the point that the relay connects to is called the upstream. The algorithms that induce various network behaviors it calls toxics. For example: you can spawn a tunnel server with example.com as the upstream and set a latency toxic on the upstream (to delay replies back to you.)
The design of Toxiproxy can be used from any programming language because it’s simply a REST API and then custom TCP daemons. Shopify’s implementation is written in Go with many clients available in different programming languages. However, what I’ve found is that the client available for Python was incomplete; wasn’t async; and there was no server implementation.
It is much easier to include Toxiproxy for testing Python network code if you don’t also have to figure out how to package a Go server. So P2PD now includes both a Toxiproxy server and client.
Adding a toxic
Let’s start with an example that shows how to add a toxic.
from p2pd import * TOXID_HOST = "127.0.0.1" TOXID_PORT = 8867 async def example(): # Start the Toxiproxy server. i = await Interface().start_local() toxid = ToxiMainServer([i]) route = await i.route().bind(port=TOXID_PORT, ips=TOXID_HOST) await toxid.listen_specific( [[route, TCP]] ) # # Create a Toxiproxy client. # This just connects to the server above. toxid_addr = await Address(TOXID_HOST, TOXID_PORT, route) client = await ToxiClient(toxid_addr).start() # # Create a new relay to an upstream. # The upstream location is set bellow. relay_dest = await Address("example.com", 80, route) tunnel = await client.new_tunnel(relay_dest) # # Add an upstream 'toxic' that adds latency to replies. toxic = ToxiToxic().upstream().add_latency(ms=2000, jitter=200) await tunnel.new_toxic(toxic) # # Get a pipe to the tunnel (you're the 'downstream.') # Send data down the tunnel to the upstream. pipe, tunnel_tup = await tunnel.get_pipe() await pipe.send(b"some malformed http req\r\n\r\n") # # ... response in 2 sec +/- jitter ms. # If you care to do a recv here... # # Cleanup everything gracefully. await pipe.close() await tunnel.close() await toxid.close() # # Give tasks time to finish.. await asyncio.sleep(2) if __name__ == '__main__': async_test(example)
So what’s going on here? Well, you’ve started a toxiproxy server and made a new toxiproxy client that has connected to it. You’ve created a new tunnel (spawning a new port to connect to) which connects to example.com as it’s ‘upstream’ location.
You can control what ‘toxics’ are active on this tunnel server. Allowing you to set direction (is it upstream or downstream), probability of activation (also known as ‘toxicity’), and much more. If you send a HTTP request down ‘pipe’ you will now get a delayed response due to the latency toxic.
I have added support for the toxics specified by Shopify. The rest of these toxics assume calling ToxiToxic().upstream().toxic_name… or ToxiToxic().downstream().toxic_name.
Adds N ms of latency with +/- jitter (random inclusive.)
Adds a limit of kb kilobytes per second.
Adds a delay to the connection being closed. So even if close is called on a pipe due in the code that coroutine will be delayed.
Prevents data from being forwarded and closes the connection after timeout. If timeout is set to 0 then the connection won’t close and no data will be delayed on this toxic is removed.
Normally when you call close() on a socket it ‘gracefully’ closes the connection. So that unsent data is sent and it indicates the sender is finished. This toxic instead tears down a connection immediately (ms=0) or after a timeout. Unset data will be discarded.
Keeps a count of the number of bytes sent. When it reaches n the connection is closed.
add_slicer(n, v, ug)
When you call recv with BSD sockets and TCP you may receive some or all of your data. Some people assume that recv corresponds to each send but in reality TCP is a stream-oriented protocol. The slicer takes received data and splits them up into multiple sends. Where n is the average byte no of a packet, v is the variation in bytes of an average packet, and ug is the microseconds to sends by.
There are tests that show usage for all of the above toxics. See tests/test_toxid.py for an example.
See https://github.com/Shopify/toxiproxy for more information.